Wool is the fiber that cover the sheep.



It is also the oldest fiber; it have been used since humans walked the earth. They're 40 different breeds of sheep produce about 200 types of fiber of varying grades.

In United States are Merino and Debouillet (fine-wool grade).

In Southdown and Columbia are (medium-wool grade).

In Romney and Lincoln (coarse-wool).

The best quality wool comes from the sides and shoulder.

The poorest comes from the lower legs.

Merino is considered the best grade wool. Merino fiber has most crimp, best drape, most strength, best resiliency, best elasticity, softest hand, and most scales on it surface.

Shorn is called fleece wool or clipped wool.

Lamb is when wool taken from a sheep younger than a year old. This make it most desirable because it is fine in diameter, which make soft product.

The leading producers of apparel wool are Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States. The leading producers in of carpet-class wool include Russia, China, Argentina, and Turkey.

The fabric is mainly made up of protein (similar to human hair) because is an animal fiber. This is a medium weight fiber and colors come in black, brown, and natural cream. Fiber length 1 to 18 inches.


After sheep are sheared, the fleece is graded and sorted by length, fineness and color. Longer fibers are used for worsted yarns and shorter fibers are for woolen yarns. After sorting, the fibers are cleaned and may be dyed, but they can also be dyed after spinning or weaving. The wool is then carded—a process that separates the fibers into a smooth, fine web twisted to make roving. For smoother worsted fabrics, the roving is combed to remove shorter fibers. Woolen and worsted roving are both then spun into strands that are twisted into yarn.


Woolen vs. Worsted


Woolen fabrics. Made from shorter fibers, yarns used for woolens are fuzzier, thicker and weaker than worsted yarns and are spun with a low to medium twist. They are used to make heavier fabrics with a slightly fuzzy surface, such as coatings, tweeds and flannels and are ideal for jackets, coats, skirts, blankets and rugs. Woolen fabrics are usually less expensive, more durable and felt more easily than worsted wool fabrics. They also hide stains better and are ideal for beginning sewers as stitching irregularities are more easily hidden in the fabric thickness.
Worsted fabrics. Made from longer fibers, worsted yarns yield fabrics that are smoother, lighter weight, stronger and faster drying than woolen fabrics. Worsted fabrics such as gabardine, suitings, twills and crepe are ideal for making suits, pants, dresses and upholstery fabrics. Worsted fabrics hold creases well and resist sagging.





It has good resiliency when dry, but poor when wet. It has good drape and elasticity and is hydrophilic (13% moisture regain). Wool has very little problem with static, but its abrasion resistance is good only if it coarse.

It is a warm fabric for two reason; first its absorbs moisture slowly and dries slowly, thus having no cooling effect and resulting in feeling warm when worn. Secondly, the fabrics have an excellent insulation property because the fibers have a natural crimp, which prevents them from packing together and so forms dead air spaces (trapped air). The trapped air is the insulating barrier.






The garments usually must be drycleaned because the fabric felts and shrinks greatly if washed at elevated temperatures with agitation. It is also vulnerable to moths , but cant be mothproofed. Itl has problems with pilling. it turn yellow if washed with chorine bleach. it also weakened and made harsher by alkalies, like strong soaps. The fabric is expensive fiber due to the limited quantities available and the cost associated with production.



End Results:

The fabric can be used in overcoats, suits, sweaters, carpets, and felt fabric.